Updated March 31st 2014
While working with git is often one of the more in depth ways of installing something, taking more time than say installing a binary it tends to be the most versatile and thorough.
First we should make sure we have the necessary dependencies to work with git.
On Debian: (Note: you will actually need to make a chroot with debian old stable as some of the dependencies are too new for the wallet to handle)
sudo apt-get install git
Red Hat or Fedora:
Su Yum install git
Gentoo: (Note: there is a binary version in the repositories)
sudo emerge --ask git
After installing git we need to install this list of packages that will allow us to compile the wallet.
build-essential libssl-dev libdb5.1++-dev libboost-all-dev libqrencode-dev libminiupnpc-dev
Notice that some of these packages may or may not be in your repository, or in fact may need to be built from git themselves. You can use the same command to install them that you did for the git package.
Next we need to clone the git repository to our own directory of choice: 'foo'
git clone http://github.com/dogecoin/dogecoin
make -f makefile.unix USE_UPNP=1 USE_IPV6=1 USE_QRCODE=1
We have now built the dogecoin wallet. If you want to have a nice graphical user interface you will need to build the dogecoin-qt.
qmake && make
And we are done.
Just simply copy the wallet.dat file to some safe **preferably** external directory eg USB or external hd.
cp /home/user/.dogecoin/wallet.dat /home/user/foo/wallet.dat.bkp.date
Most importantly you will need to update the wallet from time to time.
where foo is the directory that we cloned our dogecoin repository to previously.
git pull http://github.com/dogecoin/dogecoin
I personally always backup my wallet prior to this step and delete dogecoin-qt.
cd src && make -f makefile.unix USE_UPNP=1 USE_IPV6=1 USE_QRCODE=1 && cd .. && qmake && make